MaxQ Tall Fescue Forage Benefits
Please note that MaxQ Endophyte Friendly Tall Fescue grass has been in use for over10 years now. This article, while outdated, does contain relevant
information for those considering the planting of MaxQ Tall Fescue Grass Seed in pastures.
A novel approach
Reprinted from an article by Jason Gerke
Section: Tools and Strategies
Posted: Jun 07, 2002 By Jason Gerke :
Tall fescue is by far the
best forage in the world in my opinion," says Cliff Schuette,
cow-calf producer from Breese, Ill., "if you can just get rid of the
poison that is in it. The majority of my pasture is Kentucky 31 tall
fescue. It has made me a bunch of money, but at the same time it has
cost me money because of the reduction of conception rates in cows
and weight gain in calves."
Tall fescue accounts for over 40 million acres of pasture and forage
land in the
United States. The most common variety referred to as Kentucky 31 is
found through out the middle, eastern, and southeastern regions of
the country. There are a number of reasons for its popularity. It is
easy to establish, is easily adaptable, has a long growing season,
tolerates overgrazing and pests well, responds well to
fertilization, and maintains quality when stockpiled for winter
But tall fescue is a double-edged sword. Over 90 percent of the
fescue fields tested in the United States contain an endophyte
fungus. While this endophyte is credited with increasing persistence
in the plant, it is simultaneously releasing ergovaline toxins that
poison grazing animals disrupting circulation and causing weight
loss and poor health. Economists estimate that toxic endophytes in
tall fescue cost the cattle industry roughly a half-billion dollars
annually in loss of weaning weight, loss in average daily gain, and
loss in calf crop numbers due to open cows caused by endophyte.
Ergovaline is a vascular constrictor meaning that it constricts the surface blood vessels in livestock so they can not dissipate their heat. What that equates to is about six months of an
elevated body temperature in the summer time. The poor circulation also reduces
an animal's ability to maintain warmth in the wintertime causing the
loss of extremities.
Research from across the southern United States shows that endophyte
can reduce weight gain by more than 50 percent in steers fed on
pasture. Agalactia -a
diminished ability to produce milk- is especially severe when cows
graze tall fescue during the last trimester of gestation. Agalactia
leads to thickened placentas, aborted fetuses, and when the
offspring does survive, there is a lack of colostrum and milk for
Studies have determined cattle nearly double their weight gains
during the grazing season when they eat endophyte-free fescue
varieties. But the endophyte-free cultivars often struggle since
tall fescue needs to have the endophyte to persist just as the
endophyte needs the fescue plant to live.
There are other management practices that producers can implement to
reduce the negative effects of endophyte-infected fescue.
"I make sure clover is in all the pastures to help dilute the
toxicity," says Mr. Schuette. "And we are clipping all of the
pasture so that all of the seed heads are knocked down."
Mr. Schuette implements a
management-intensive grazing program to keep the forage-the majority
of which is infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue-in a vegetative state
instead of letting it mature.
"In the summer months I also use some of the row crop ground for
grazing," adds Mr. Schuette. "I try to get out on some of my row
crop ground by first putting wheat out and then frost seeding clover
underneath the wheat. After we take the wheat off in late June or
early July there is usually about 4 to 6 inches of clover growth in
the stubble, and we will graze that in July and August to help
support the pasture system."
Despite all this clipping and management to control fescue toxicity,
Mr. Schuette says his cattle are still under stress in the summer
time from the toxicity. They like to bunch up in corners and stand
by the water tank. Body temperature is really crucial in the
summertime. If cows have an elevated body temperature, just like
humans, they don't feel well and they do not eat much.
What producers need is forage with the production potential of
endophyte-free fescue but with the persistence of infected fescue
A novel endophyte
Tall fescue varieties infected with a novel endophyte will soon be
widely available. They have the potential to offer a
"best-of-both-worlds" solution for livestock producers.
The Jesup MaxQ (tm) which is currently on the market, is a combination of
a superior tall fescue
cultivars and a non-toxic endophyte. MaxQ is the name of the
patented novel endophyte, not the plant. It is completely natural
with no chemicals or genetic engineering involved in its production.
The MaxQ endophyte was discovered in the Mediterranean by New
Zealand researchers. Upon identifying an endophyte fungus that
didn't produce high levels of toxic alkaloids, researchers inserted
it into a hardy tall fescue variety developed at the University of
Georgia called Jesup. The novel seed is now marketed through
Pennington Seed based in Madison, Ga.
There are other cultivars and endophytes currently being patented.
In fact producers can expect another product from the University of
Arkansas to have a shelf presence later this year.
Performance to date
To test out the new seed variety, Mr. Schuette first seeded a small
area of marginal, highly erodible land that he wanted to take out of
row crop production. Due to a wet summer, the soil could not be
worked up in September, so the new seeding of Jesup with MaxQ got
off to a tough start. Mr. Schuette reported that over the first
winter there was not much of a stand but was later impressed with
its winter survivability and strong spring growth.
"Last year was unusually dry, but the Max Q fescue continued to grow
and hold its own under dry conditions despite being a newly seeded
pasture," says Mr. Schuette. "In comparison I also had an endophyte-free
variety planted and saw less than a 10 percent stand by the
fall. "The first cutting was put into hay to prolong cattle pressure,
but the new forage was then put into Mr. Schuette's 30-day
rotational grazing system. Cattle grazed the novel tall fescue
paddock for three or four days then moved off the paddock for 25 to
27 days. This continued all through the summer during the dry
"Since I did not have water in the newly established MaxQ paddock
yet, the cattle had a choice of grazing two paddocks," reports Mr.
Schuette. "One paddock had existing pasture of Kentucky 31 fescue,
red clover and alfalfa mixed in. The cattle were continuously in the
straight Max Q paddock when given a choice. The biggest difference
is intake. They are eating more. They are not refusing it like
"It proved itself on the farm for me," adds Mr. Schuette. "I like to
do a lot of side-by-side comparisons if I can. After last year it
sold me, so I put a net of 20 acres in last fall. I had a lot better
fall and winter for it. As a matter of fact, the MaxQ grew so much
this past winter and early spring that I could not frost seed my
clover on because I had too much growth."
On the research side Craig Roberts, professor of agronomy at the
University of Missouri, says the beef production seems to be
outstanding and persistence seems to be very good.
"We conducted the grazing trials for two years measuring animal
responses," says Dr. Roberts. "Once we saw that it was not toxic to
the steers, we started to focus on performance. All things being
equal, our steers have gained twice as much on novel infected fescue
as they did on the Kentucky 31 fescue with the toxic endophyte. They
look like they are grazing orchard grass. The entire hair coat is
slicked off in the summer. They are fat and muscular. They don't
have any problems with fescue foot. "Challenges
The new varieties still present challenges for producers. The seed
can be expensive, and with the novel endophyte, there's nothing to
suppress the animals' appetites.
"The beef production seems to be outstanding and the persistence
seems to be very good. And there is a difference," says Dr. Roberts.
"You can't have everything."
Researchers in Missouri and Georgia report that they have seen about
a 10 percent stand loss in the novel endophyte varieties. It could
be caused by low alkaloid levels, says Dr. Roberts, because
alkaloids have some anti-microbial and anti-herbivore activity. But
more likely the novel endophyte varieties are just overgrazed.
"When cattle graze novel-infected tall fescue, they eat it like they
would any non-toxic, highly-nutritious grass," says Dr. Roberts.
"So, if you don't watch it, they can graze it down to where you will
have a little bit of stand loss. That doesn't mean that it is not
persistent forage. If animals are gaining so much more weight, then
where is the weight coming from? Well it is coming from the pasture
because the intake is much higher. Since it is coming from the
pasture they may be overgrazing it. The stubble may be lower and at
times it may look a little stressed."
Cost of implementation
Renovating an acre of land with a MaxQ fescue variety will cost
between $60 and $80 per acre in seed alone. And if you have to tear
up or spray out old fescue, then your cost will increase. "But if
you can increase weaning weights by 60 to 75 pounds that is worth
$60 to $75 in the first year," says Robert Johnson, a representative
for Pennington Seed Company. "If you will take that a step further
and graze that weaned calf for an additional 100 days in which he
can gain an extra pound per day, that ought to be worth another
With strong persistence, adds Mr. Johnson, you are looking at that
lasting a lot longer.
"This is not a payoff that you are going to receive in the second or
third year. This is a pay off that you are going to receive each of
the next 20 years."
Read MaxQ yearly planning guide for successful establishment.
Read more on
MaxQ Planting Tips
a beautiful tomorrow!®